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Public debt is in the large majority of countries one of the most important budget expenditures, and very often the largest one. Democratic government requires that public debt and its medium- and long-term effects be made transparent. This is necessary to help ensure accountability and facilitate a better-informed public debate.
The equity market is a prominent member of the capital market and encapsulates the mechanisms and conventions that exist for the issuance of, investing in, and the trading of marketable equity instruments that represent the permanent or semi-permanent capital of the issuers (companies). The equity market plays a significant role in the economy.
Water is every living organism’s common denominator. Societies depend on it for their own subsistence and growth, and go great lengths to ensure water secure futures. But freshwater is not, in essence and in practice, an egalitarian resource and its accessibility to some often means inaccessibility to others.
This course is designed for government officials, development consultants and practitioners, students of development, and those who have keen interest in governance and financial management. Nowadays, effective public financial management is considered critical in combating corruption, alleviating poverty, and ensuring the effective use of internal and external resources.
Nowadays, as a result of the globalisation process, individuals and organizations constantly need to be engaged in developing their cross-cultural competences in order to operate effectively in a multilateral setting and avoid barriers, misunderstandings and prejudices in negotiation and mediation processes.
The derivative markets are the financial markets for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives.
The United Nations and its related bodies, agencies and programmes convene thousands of formal and informal, official and unofficial, meetings and conferences each year. The Secretary-General meets with Heads of States and Governments and Ministers on an on-going basis either at Headquarters or during his travels.
International trade is now widely acknowledged as an important engine of growth in most developing and transition economies. The recent ministerial meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have further demonstrated the importance of international trade and investment flows, with many developing economies joining hands to vigorously defend their interests in this area.
The Course is meant to make students acquainted with the main issues of the new approaches to and techniques of the governance of public finance. The traditional model of public finance was based on established structures of government, and the sole responsibility for an efficient management of public finances was political. This means any mismanagement of public finances (e. g.