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Everyone negotiates something every day. Whether it is how to handle an organizational challenge, a takeover or a dispute, successful negotiation means getting what you want without offending the other party. Negotiating is not a one-off activity or a finite set of skills. It is an on-going challenge, which benefits from continual practice, analysis and review.
Public debt management is the process of establishing and executing a strategy for managing a governments' debt in order to raise the required amount of funding, achieve its risk and cost objectives, and to meet any other debt management goals that a government may have set, such as developing and maintaining an efficient market for government securities.
Developing countries often presume, for a variety of reasons, that they have limited or no capacity to influence the outcome of negotiations of a loan agreement with an international lender. They often feel that international lenders generally do not subscribe to the viewpoint of borrowers or amend the clauses of the loan agreements. This is a serious misconception.
Transparency in public finance is a constant preoccupation of modern administrations and citizenries, as the publicity of public expenditure and borrowing, the uniformisation of national accounts, citizen participation in government decisionmaking, and the introduction of various forms of control of government activity have become the rule rather than the exception in all geographies.
This course on the Fundamentals of Risk Management is designed to present the content and the tools of modern financial risk assessment and management. It aims at satisfying the needs for credit risk training especially in developing countries and emerging markets, some of which have experienced or have been affected by several financial crises during the last two decades.
Water is every living organism’s common denominator. Societies depend on it for their own subsistence and growth, and go great lengths to ensure water secure futures. But freshwater is not, in essence and in practice, an egalitarian resource and its accessibility to some often means inaccessibility to others.