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The United Nations plays a major role in the management and resolution of international conflicts. It is a unique actor in the field of international conflict management which successfully negotiates and implements many of the settlements that have ended some of the most protracted conflicts in the world.
Representatives of governments and from other actors such as international and non-governmental organizations must be able to understand and often work with UN agencies in order to achieve their objectives and advance their interests.
As it is, 'negotiation' is a complex set of interactions between parties or individuals. Add to it the dimension of 'conflict', and we find ourselves on very slippery terrain. This online course is a primer on negotiating for conflict and dispute resolution. It aims at providing participants with the fundamental understanding and tools for complex negotiations under conflict situations.
Public debt is in the large majority of countries one of the most important budget expenditures, and very often the largest one. Democratic government requires that public debt and its medium- and long-term effects be made transparent. This is necessary to help ensure accountability and facilitate a better-informed public debate.
The rapid and often unplanned and uncoordinated growth of cities has seriously compromised existing transportation systems and significantly increased the challenge of creating new transportation systems, especially in developing countries.
Many governments face the triple challenge of reducing environmental risks, while fostering economic growth and reducing poverty. Green fiscal reform (GFR) as a policy approach can improve fiscal consolidation, spur innovation, and help identify smarter ways for government taxation and spending.
Chemical hazards’ classification and communication systems are key elements of the sound management of chemicals. To harmonise these systems worldwide, the United Nations adopted, in 2003, the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The GHS is an important tool for countries to develop or modify national programmes and to facilitate trade.
Over the past 20 years disasters have affected 4.4 billion people, caused USD 2 trillion of damage and killed 1.3 million people. Disasters have affected people living in developing countries and, in particular, the most vulnerable communities within these countries.
“Sustainable energy — energy that is accessible, cleaner and more efficient—powers opportunity. It grows economies. It lights up homes, schools and hospitals. It empowers women and local communities. And it paves a path out of poverty to greater prosperity for all.” UN Sustainable Energy for All