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Throughout history, the speech has been one of the most powerful forms of communication. Technological, social and economic changes have enhanced that power. As digital communication has increased, speeches have had to become more authentic and honest.
New digital technologies have had, and will continue to have, a profound impact on both the practice and content matter of diplomacy. The digital ecosystem in which diplomats operate offers new opportunities, especially for smaller states, but also challenges traditional activities and organisational structures.
Nowadays, as a result of the globalisation process, individuals and organizations constantly need to be engaged in developing their cross-cultural competences in order to operate effectively in a multilateral setting and avoid barriers, misunderstandings and prejudices in negotiation and mediation processes.
This course serves as an introduction to money creation. One of the great mysteries and elegant features of the financial system in general, and of the banking sector in particular, is the creation of new money. The largest component of the money stock, bank deposits, is literally created by accounting entries.
Water is every living organism’s common denominator. Societies depend on it for their own subsistence and growth, and go great lengths to ensure water secure futures. But freshwater is not, in essence and in practice, an egalitarian resource and its accessibility to some often means inaccessibility to others.
Currently, Sustainable Development emerges as a new kind of knowledge for better understanding of the social, natural and economic processes which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations in meeting their own needs. This concept has gained a great importance as a scientific vision in the last two decades.
The global financial crises has brought to the fore the pertinence of corporate governance issues across industrialized, emerging and developing economies alike. Corporations play a valuable role in our communities and in nations around the world. Good Corporate Governance is a union between the financial and personal success of a corporation.
The economies of different countries are organised in different combinations of what economic literature classifies as traditional economic systems, command systems and free market systems.
Almost every country in the world holds foreign currency reserves or “FX reserves”, which are assets of the central bank held in different reserve currencies, most commonly the US Dollar, used to back its liabilities. Foreign exchange reserves held by the Central Bank are a major national asset and a primary tool of monetary and exchange rate policy.
The recent liquidity crises has placed a spot light and greater scrutiny on short-term inter-bank lending operations, which to a large extent involve money market operations. The debt market, made up of the money market and the bond market, is an important element of the financial system.