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In the context of developing bilateral contractual relations, negotiation has taken a prominent place as a decision-making and regulation process. Also, the challenge of renewed multilateralism is closely linked to the ability of the international community to foster truly productive negotiation processes in a rapidly evolving global context.
Despite their endowment of natural wealth, resource-rich developing countries among the poorest, low democratic and most conflict-ridden countries of the world.
The equity market is a prominent member of the capital market and encapsulates the mechanisms and conventions that exist for the issuance of, investing in, and the trading of marketable equity instruments that represent the permanent or semi-permanent capital of the issuers (companies). The equity market plays a significant role in the economy.
The derivative markets are the financial markets for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives.
This course is designed for government officials, development consultants and practitioners, students of development, and those who have keen interest in governance and financial management. Nowadays, effective public financial management is considered critical in combating corruption, alleviating poverty, and ensuring the effective use of internal and external resources.
The transactions carried out by the government of a country with the individuals or industrial, commercial or business organizations, domestic or international, for the purposes of sale, purchase, construction, acquisition of service, disposal of obsolete goods, etc., are called public contracts.
Representatives of governments and from other actors such as international and non-governmental organizations must be able to understand and often work with UN agencies in order to achieve their objectives and advance their interests.
Many governments face the triple challenge of reducing environmental risks, while fostering economic growth and reducing poverty. Green fiscal reform (GFR) as a policy approach can improve fiscal consolidation, spur innovation, and help identify smarter ways for government taxation and spending.
International trade is now widely acknowledged as an important engine of growth in most developing and transition economies. The recent ministerial meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have further demonstrated the importance of international trade and investment flows, with many developing economies joining hands to vigorously defend their interests in this area.
The essence of international financial governance consists of providing support to the international monetary system that is predictable and stable and that facilitates payments for international economic transactions.