All events in
L’Afrique, tout comme l’Asie, est l’épicentre de l’urbanisation mondiale. Elle connait une transition urbaine à grande vitesse et sera vraisemblablement la région avec la plus rapide urbanisation dans les décennies à venir. En 1990, seul un tiers de la population africaine était urbanisée (31%). A l’horizon 2035, ce pourcentage devrait atteindre 49%.
Africa, along with Asia, is the epicenter of global urbanization. It is undergoing a rapid urban transition and is set to be the fastest urbanizing region in the coming decades. In 1990 only a third of Africa’s population was urban (31 per cent)—by 2035, the figure is projected to reach 49 per cent.
Public diplomacy, and its sister concept, soft power, dominate much of the current academic debate about 21st century diplomacy. A major challenge for governments is how to develop effective public diplomacy, and optimize the use of their soft power, in a rapidly changing global environment.
Conflicts and wars have been recurrent throughout history. In 2010, over 300 conflicts have affected the lives of millions of individuals around the world. Despite their different occurrences, conflicts have common characteristics and working mechanisms. Only by analyzing the causes, actors and specific dynamics, conflicts can be efficiently mediated.
Prior to the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, which were concluded in December 1993, multilateral trade negotiations were seen as a preserve of the developed countries and the developing countries have only a marginal role to play in the negotiation process; they were primarily the recipients of preferential market access and other special differential treatment.
La croissance rapide, anarchique et désordonnée des villes compromet sérieusement les systèmes de transport existants et renforce considérablement le défi de créer de nouveaux systèmes de transport, en particulier dans les pays en développement.
El crecimiento rápido, no planificado y descoordinado de las ciudades ha puesto seriamente en peligro los sistemas de transporte existentes y ha incrementado significativamente el desafío de crear futuros sistemas de transporte, especialmente en los países en desarrollo.
The equity market is a prominent member of the capital market and encapsulates the mechanisms and conventions that exist for the issuance of, investing in, and the trading of marketable equity instruments that represent the permanent or semi-permanent capital of the issuers (companies). The equity market plays a significant role in the economy.
Over the past decades, the world has witnessed armed conflicts marked by systematic violence and mass atrocities against civilians. In recent years, hundreds of political conflicts around the globe have affected the lives of countless people.
The recent liquidity crises has placed a spot light and greater scrutiny on short-term inter-bank lending operations, which to a large extent involve money market operations. The debt market, made up of the money market and the bond market, is an important element of the financial system.