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Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of 21st century diplomacy and international governance. Given the many different stakeholders and communities who have roles to play, it is a contemporary challenge with regard to its demand on interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and languages, and the personal capacities needed to combine these so as to make diplomatic sense and success.
Public debt is in the large majority of countries one of the most important budget expenditures, and very often the largest one. Democratic government requires that public debt and its medium- and long-term effects be made transparent. This is necessary to help ensure accountability and facilitate a better-informed public debate.
This course serves as an introduction to money creation. One of the great mysteries and elegant features of the financial system in general, and of the banking sector in particular, is the creation of new money. The largest component of the money stock, bank deposits, is literally created by accounting entries.
There are many fields (e.g. education, health, postal services) where the working of market, focusing on profitability, can not serve a broader view-of public interest, and the Government (State) has to act as a problem-solver through subsidization or nationalization.
“Sustainable energy — energy that is accessible, cleaner and more efficient—powers opportunity. It grows economies. It lights up homes, schools and hospitals. It empowers women and local communities. And it paves a path out of poverty to greater prosperity for all.” UN Sustainable Energy for All
As it is, 'negotiation' is a complex set of interactions between parties or individuals. Add to it the dimension of 'conflict', and we find ourselves on very slippery terrain. This online course is a primer on negotiating for conflict and dispute resolution. It aims at providing participants with the fundamental understanding and tools for complex negotiations under conflict situations.
Debt negotiators face enormous challenges in their dealings with their creditors. They have to deal with the difficult situation and pressures created by the governance problems in their respective countries, as well as with the shortages of skilled personnel and of time to prepare for negotiations.
The recent liquidity crises has placed a spot light and greater scrutiny on short-term inter-bank lending operations, which to a large extent involve money market operations. The debt market, made up of the money market and the bond market, is an important element of the financial system.
This course is designed for officials and other participants who are interested in learning more about the structuring and negotiating of financial transactions between developing/emerging countries and their external sources of funds.
This UNITAR online course aims at developing awareness and understanding of organizations which operate internationally as well as regionally in dealing with finance and debt management issues.