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Transparency in public finance is a constant preoccupation of modern administrations and citizenries, as the publicity of public expenditure and borrowing, the uniformisation of national accounts, citizen participation in government decisionmaking, and the introduction of various forms of control of government activity have become the rule rather than the exception in all geographies.
Currently, Sustainable Development emerges as a new kind of knowledge for better understanding of the social, natural and economic processes which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations in meeting their own needs. This concept has gained a great importance as a scientific vision in the last two decades.
Almost every country in the world holds foreign currency reserves or “FX reserves”, which are assets of the central bank held in different reserve currencies, most commonly the US Dollar, used to back its liabilities. Foreign exchange reserves held by the Central Bank are a major national asset and a primary tool of monetary and exchange rate policy.
The economies of different countries are organised in different combinations of what economic literature classifies as traditional economic systems, command systems and free market systems.
According to the World Bank, there are more than 500 million economically active poor individuals in the world operating microenterprises and small businesses, and most of them do not have access to financial services. One of the ways by which their demand for financial services has been met is through the provisions of microcredit.
Water is essential for life and for sustainable development. Increasing human population, the impacts of climate change and unsustainable growth all place pressures on the world’s precious freshwater resources. Managing water well is essential for the international community to deliver the promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
As it is, 'negotiation' is a complex set of interactions between parties or individuals. Add to it the dimension of 'conflict', and we find ourselves on very slippery terrain. This online course is a primer on negotiating for conflict and dispute resolution. It aims at providing participants with the fundamental understanding and tools for complex negotiations under conflict situations.
Chemical hazards’ classification and communication systems are key elements of the sound management of chemicals. To harmonise these systems worldwide, the United Nations adopted, in 2003, the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The GHS is an important tool for countries to develop or modify national programmes and to facilitate trade.
The United Nations plays a major role in the management and resolution of international conflicts. It is a unique actor in the field of international conflict management which successfully negotiates and implements many of the settlements that have ended some of the most protracted conflicts in the world.