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In an increasingly interconnected, globalized and complex world, where the importance of multilateral dialogue and cooperation is ever growing, the demand for training and capacity development in the field of international affairs and diplomacy is constantly rising.
Transparency in public finance is a constant preoccupation of modern administrations and citizenries, as the publicity of public expenditure and borrowing, the uniformisation of national accounts, citizen participation in government decisionmaking, and the introduction of various forms of control of government activity have become the rule rather than the exception in all geographies.
Public diplomacy, and its sister concept, soft power, dominate much of the current academic debate about 21st century diplomacy. A major challenge for governments is how to develop effective public diplomacy, and optimize the use of their soft power, in a rapidly changing global environment.
Everyone negotiates something every day. Whether it is how to handle an organizational challenge, a takeover or a dispute, successful negotiation means getting what you want without offending the other party. Negotiating is not a one-off activity or a finite set of skills. It is an on-going challenge, which benefits from continual practice, analysis and review.
Despite their endowment of natural wealth, resource-rich developing countries among the poorest, low democratic and most conflict-ridden countries of the world.
Public debt is in the large majority of countries one of the most important budget expenditures, and very often the largest one. Democratic government requires that public debt and its medium- and long-term effects be made transparent. This is necessary to help ensure accountability and facilitate a better-informed public debate.
A capital market is a market for securities (debt or equity), where governments and business enterprises (companies) can raise long-term funds. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year, as the raising of short-term funds takes place on other markets (e.g., the money market).
The derivative markets are the financial markets for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives.
The equity market is a prominent member of the capital market and encapsulates the mechanisms and conventions that exist for the issuance of, investing in, and the trading of marketable equity instruments that represent the permanent or semi-permanent capital of the issuers (companies). The equity market plays a significant role in the economy.
“Sustainable energy — energy that is accessible, cleaner and more efficient—powers opportunity. It grows economies. It lights up homes, schools and hospitals. It empowers women and local communities. And it paves a path out of poverty to greater prosperity for all.” UN Sustainable Energy for All