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The derivative markets are the financial markets for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives.
Public procurement is the acquisition of goods, services, and works by a public “authority” or “body”. Transactions of this nature are public undertakings and, therefore, they are governed by Civil, Community, or International Law. Constituting one of the main expenditures of government in developing countries, the importance of public procurement cannot be denied.
Conflict resolution is the set of methods and approaches used to facilitate the peaceful de-escalation and termination of a conflict. Defined broadly, it may include democratisation or even development. Indeed, political participation through democratic processes may be a method to avoid conflict in the first place or at least to ensure the fair treatment of the causes of the conflict.
The economies of different countries are organised in different combinations of what economic literature classifies as traditional economic systems, command systems and free market systems.
According to the World Bank, more than 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by repeated violence. In absolute terms, the need for direct physical protection of civilians against imminent violence has never been greater than it is today. Local and international actors are struggling to protect all those under direct threat, wherever conflict occurs.
Water is every living organism’s common denominator. Societies depend on it for their own subsistence and growth, and go great lengths to ensure water secure futures. But freshwater is not, in essence and in practice, an egalitarian resource and its accessibility to some often means inaccessibility to others.
Nowadays, as a result of the globalisation process, individuals and organizations constantly need to be engaged in developing their cross-cultural competences in order to operate effectively in a multilateral setting and avoid barriers, misunderstandings and prejudices in negotiation and mediation processes.
The Course strives to promote knowledge and understanding of Financial Globalization which is understood as the integration of a country’s financial system with international financial markets and institutions.
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) are the predominant legal method for addressing transboundary environmental problems. Adopted by States, MEAs are standard-settings instruments for effective global environmental protection.