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A capital market is a market for securities (debt or equity), where governments and business enterprises (companies) can raise long-term funds. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year, as the raising of short-term funds takes place on other markets (e.g., the money market).
The derivative markets are the financial markets for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives.
Secretary-General António Gutteres has emphasized the indispensable role of innovation in policy-making process on November 6, 2017: “From my perspective, what is important is to combine innovation and public policy to make sure that innovation works for the good of humankind.” In today’s world, technology is the driving force for innovation.
As the aviation industry continues to grow at an accelerating rate worldwide, there is an increased need for airports in developing countries to reexamine and improve their practices in terms of operations, economics, management, safety and security.
Many governments face the triple challenge of reducing environmental risks, while fostering economic growth and reducing poverty. Green fiscal reform (GFR) as a policy approach can improve fiscal consolidation, spur innovation, and help identify smarter ways for government taxation and spending.
International trade is now widely acknowledged as an important engine of growth in most developing and transition economies. The recent ministerial meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have further demonstrated the importance of international trade and investment flows, with many developing economies joining hands to vigorously defend their interests in this area.
Representatives of governments and from other actors such as international and non-governmental organizations must be able to understand and often work with UN agencies in order to achieve their objectives and advance their interests.
This course is designed for government officials, development consultants and practitioners, students of development, and those who have keen interest in governance and financial management. Nowadays, effective public financial management is considered critical in combating corruption, alleviating poverty, and ensuring the effective use of internal and external resources.
The essence of international financial governance consists of providing support to the international monetary system that is predictable and stable and that facilitates payments for international economic transactions.
The transactions carried out by the government of a country with the individuals or industrial, commercial or business organizations, domestic or international, for the purposes of sale, purchase, construction, acquisition of service, disposal of obsolete goods, etc., are called public contracts.