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Almost every country in the world holds foreign currency reserves or “FX reserves”, which are assets of the central bank held in different reserve currencies, most commonly the US Dollar, used to back its liabilities. Foreign exchange reserves held by the Central Bank are a major national asset and a primary tool of monetary and exchange rate policy.
The world trading system has undergone massive changes in the last decade. The creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the development of enforceable international rules governing trade in services and intellectual property rights as well as trade in goods vastly expanded the scope and effectiveness of the system.
Extractive industries are those that are related to mineral and hydrocarbon products such as gold, phospates, diamonds, oil, gas, etc. Extractive industries remain the economic bedrock for many developing countries, generating the main, if not the sole source of fiscal revenues, foreign exchange earnings and surpluses to finance much needed socio-economic development.
Despite their endowment of natural wealth, resource-rich developing countries among the poorest, low democratic and most conflict-ridden countries of the world.
The transactions carried out by the government of a country with the individuals or industrial, commercial or business organizations, domestic or international, for the purposes of sale, purchase, construction, acquisition of service, disposal of obsolete goods, etc., are called public contracts.
This course on Mathematics of Finance presents the basic tools for financial calculations. It aims at satisfying the needs for the application of mathematics of finance concepts through a standard computer software - Excel - widely used by students and professionals all over the world for finance and capital markets.
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) are the predominant legal method for addressing transboundary environmental problems. Adopted by States, MEAs are standard-settings instruments for effective global environmental protection.
The expansion of international trade, particularly in recent decades, has spawned a large number and type of international disputes. Resolving those disputes without agreed procedures for doing so, can prove to be time-consuming, frustrating and even pointless.
The debt market, made up of the money market and the bond market, is an important element of the financial system. The bond market, on which this course will focus, is usually seen as the market for long-term marketable debt instruments (i.e. bonds) and the money market as the market for short-term marketable debt instruments, such as commercial paper (CP) and treasury bills (TBs).
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods are becoming more common and popular as they help in generating confidence of the international investing community. If a dispute arises, international investors need not depend on the judicial system of a particular country, but and can resort to the alternative dispute resolution methods, such as arbitration.