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Almost every country in the world holds foreign currency reserves or “FX reserves”, which are assets of the central bank held in different reserve currencies, most commonly the US Dollar, used to back its liabilities. Foreign exchange reserves held by the Central Bank are a major national asset and a primary tool of monetary and exchange rate policy.
The recent liquidity crises has placed a spot light and greater scrutiny on short-term inter-bank lending operations, which to a large extent involve money market operations. The debt market, made up of the money market and the bond market, is an important element of the financial system.
The United Nations and its related bodies, agencies and programmes convene thousands of formal and informal, official and unofficial, meetings and conferences each year. The Secretary-General meets with Heads of States and Governments and Ministers on an on-going basis either at Headquarters or during his travels.
As it is, 'negotiation' is a complex set of interactions between parties or individuals. Add to it the dimension of 'conflict', and we find ourselves on very slippery terrain. This online course is a primer on negotiating for conflict and dispute resolution. It aims at providing participants with the fundamental understanding and tools for complex negotiations under conflict situations.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods are becoming more common and popular as they help in generating confidence of the international investing community. If a dispute arises, international investors need not depend on the judicial system of a particular country, but and can resort to the alternative dispute resolution methods, such as arbitration.
The rapid adoption of social media fundamentally transforms the way of communicating and learning. Social media closes the gap between poorer and richer in access to information and communication channels. We have testified the power of social media in stirring emotions, winning elections and triggering revolutions.
In a time when contracts and loan agreements awarded by government and commercial entities are increasingly complex and involve sophisticated understanding, a firm understanding of contract administration and management and the necessary tools is vital to success. Financial markets are changing continually and new borrowing instruments are being developed.
Governments and increasingly other actors such as international and non-governmental organizations use multilateral conferences as a means to achieve important policy objectives. As the number of conferences and meetings has risen considerably over the past twenty years, the number of government officers and other stakeholders involved in conference processes has also increased significantly.
This course serves as an introduction to central banking and monetary policy. We, the public, accept as money (M): notes and coins (N&C) and bank deposits (BD). In other words we accept N&C and BD as the means of payments / medium of exchange.
The Course strives to promote knowledge and understanding of Financial Globalization which is understood as the integration of a country’s financial system with international financial markets and institutions.