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Currently, Sustainable Development emerges as a new kind of knowledge for better understanding of the social, natural and economic processes which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations in meeting their own needs. This concept has gained a great importance as a scientific vision in the last two decades.
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods are becoming more common and popular as they help in generating confidence of the international investing community. If a dispute arises, international investors need not depend on the judicial system of a particular country, but and can resort to the alternative dispute resolution methods, such as arbitration.
As it is, 'negotiation' is a complex set of interactions between parties or individuals. Add to it the dimension of 'conflict', and we find ourselves on very slippery terrain. This online course is a primer on negotiating for conflict and dispute resolution. It aims at providing participants with the fundamental understanding and tools for complex negotiations under conflict situations.
Almost every country in the world holds foreign currency reserves or “FX reserves”, which are assets of the central bank held in different reserve currencies, most commonly the US Dollar, used to back its liabilities. Foreign exchange reserves held by the Central Bank are a major national asset and a primary tool of monetary and exchange rate policy.
The United Nations and its related bodies, agencies and programmes convene thousands of formal and informal, official and unofficial, meetings and conferences each year. The Secretary-General meets with Heads of States and Governments and Ministers on an on-going basis either at Headquarters or during his travels.
The recent liquidity crises has placed a spot light and greater scrutiny on short-term inter-bank lending operations, which to a large extent involve money market operations. The debt market, made up of the money market and the bond market, is an important element of the financial system.
This course serves as an introduction to central banking and monetary policy. We, the public, accept as money (M): notes and coins (N&C) and bank deposits (BD). In other words we accept N&C and BD as the means of payments / medium of exchange.
The Course strives to promote knowledge and understanding of Financial Globalization which is understood as the integration of a country’s financial system with international financial markets and institutions.
There are many fields (e.g. education, health, postal services) where the working of market, focusing on profitability, can not serve a broader view-of public interest, and the Government (State) has to act as a problem-solver through subsidization or nationalization.
In a time when contracts and loan agreements awarded by government and commercial entities are increasingly complex and involve sophisticated understanding, a firm understanding of contract administration and management and the necessary tools is vital to success. Financial markets are changing continually and new borrowing instruments are being developed.