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A capital market is a market for securities (debt or equity), where governments and business enterprises (companies) can raise long-term funds. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year, as the raising of short-term funds takes place on other markets (e.g., the money market).
This UNITAR online course aims at developing awareness and understanding of organizations which operate internationally as well as regionally in dealing with finance and debt management issues.
The essence of international financial governance consists of providing support to the international monetary system that is predictable and stable and that facilitates payments for international economic transactions.
The transactions carried out by the government of a country with the individuals or industrial, commercial or business organizations, domestic or international, for the purposes of sale, purchase, construction, acquisition of service, disposal of obsolete goods, etc., are called public contracts.
This course is designed for government officials, development consultants and practitioners, students of development, and those who have keen interest in governance and financial management. Nowadays, effective public financial management is considered critical in combating corruption, alleviating poverty, and ensuring the effective use of internal and external resources.
International trade is now widely acknowledged as an important engine of growth in most developing and transition economies. The recent ministerial meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have further demonstrated the importance of international trade and investment flows, with many developing economies joining hands to vigorously defend their interests in this area.
The Course is meant to make students acquainted with the main issues of the new approaches to and techniques of the governance of public finance. The traditional model of public finance was based on established structures of government, and the sole responsibility for an efficient management of public finances was political. This means any mismanagement of public finances (e. g.
Water is essential for life and for sustainable development, and well-managed water services contribute to poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental sustainability. Increasing human population, the impacts of climate change and unsustainable growth all place pressures on water demand, water quality and water availability.
The United Nations plays a major role in the management and resolution of international conflicts. It is a unique actor in the field of international conflict management which successfully negotiates and implements many of the settlements that have ended some of the most protracted conflicts in the world.
The recent global economic and financial crisis has once again revealed to us the crucial importance of understanding the intricacies of risk analysis and risk management applied to finance.