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With the increasing call for and formation of truth commissions, trials, and other justice mechanisms worldwide, the concept of ‘transitional justice’ has become widespread. Peacebuilding actors face immense challenges when assisting societies devastated by conflict or emerging from repressive rule to re-establish the rule of law and confront large-scale human rights violations.
Peacekeeping is one of the many tools employed by the United Nations and other international organizations to help address diverse threats to international peace and security. Since its inception, peacekeeping has contributed to preventing and managing violent conflict between and within states and to the support of national actors in protecting and building peace after conflict.
Conflict resolution is the set of methods and approaches used to facilitate the peaceful de-escalation and termination of a conflict. Defined broadly, it may include democratisation or even development. Indeed, political participation through democratic processes may be a method to avoid conflict in the first place or at least to ensure the fair treatment of the causes of the conflict.
Human security first appeared as a post-Cold War attempt to transform the traditional understanding of security – which was framed in terms of the security of the territory from external military aggression and of the protection of national interests in foreign policy.
This course aims to build an understanding of the importance of States’ Action Plans to address CO2 emissions from the international aviation sector. By establishing close cooperation among all stakeholders, it will help facilitate the selection, adoption and implementation of the most appropriate measures to reduce the CO2 emissions.
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) are the predominant legal method for addressing transboundary environmental problems. Adopted by States, MEAs are standard-settings instruments for effective global environmental protection.