The “Reinforcement of the Tanzania Peacekeeping Training Centre” project aimed to strengthen the impact of peace operations by directly addressing the challenges related to deficient pre-deployment training, with a particular focus on uniformed personnel. It intended to do so by transforming the existing Peacekeeping Training Center of the Tanzanian Armed Forces (TPTC) into a fully integrated training and research centre for the preparation of East African uniformed personnel deploying to UN peace operations.

The evaluation assessed the project against the six OECD/DAC criteria: relevance, coherence, effectiveness, efficiency, likelihood of impact, and likelihood of sustainability; with focus on institutional assessment and support; during the period from July to December 2022. The evaluation also used these criteria to identify good practices and potential challenges that the project has encountered throughout its implementation.

The evaluation was based on a qualitative design, which implied the combination of several qualitative instruments and greater emphasis on triangulation and pattern analysis. Data collection instruments included a thorough document review, remote and in person interviews and focus group discussions with optional interpretation in Swahili. The design has ensured that a Do No Harm approach is followed when interacting with stakeholders and designing instruments, considering local cultural sensitivities and norms during fieldwork. The evaluation was adaptive to limitations faced, mainly related to the availability, robustness, and consistency of information, in addition to the short timeframe of implementation of both phases.

Key evaluation findings and conclusions

Relevance: The project design and overall impact is highly aligned with the UNITAR Strategic Framework 2022-2025 and highly relevant to SDG 16 and SDG 5, specifically addressing Target 16.1, indicator 16.1.2., Target 5.1., indicator 5.1.1., and Target 5.5., indicator 5.5.2.. The project is also highly relevant and in line with global UN efforts to achieve and sustain peaceful societies, namely with The Cruz Report, Action for Peacekeeping, UN Resolutions 2436 and 2518, UN dispositions on the WPS Agenda and the Uniformed Gender Parity Strategy 2018-2028. Furthermore, the project is relevant to the needs and priorities of beneficiaries, including trainers, military (TPTC) and police (TPF) stakeholders, as well as aligned to the overall project goal. Relevance to TPTC strategic organizational vision is demonstrated through four areas in the framework.

Coherence: The project is well-aligned with UNITAR’s portfolio within the areas of conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding. It is also coherent with UNITAR’s Division for Peace standards for training and guidelines for ToT design and implementation, with a visible content and methodological alignment of ToTs conducted, and complements well the UN Pre-deployment training provided to Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI) partner troop and Formed Police Units (FPUs) contributing countries. Nonetheless, the evaluation of ToTs and leadership training has an evidenced lack of systematic data management and reporting, dissemination or reflection with key stakeholders and strategic use for targeted learning and adapting purposes. Overall, the intervention showed a gender-sensitive and women empowerment approach and a good alignment with human rights standards. However, the evaluation did not find evidence of a gender sensitive content approach to the ToT.

Effectiveness: Related to the project’s achievement of planned outputs and outcomes, most targets and activities were achieved with adjustments to some outputs. The short timeframe of implementation limited achievement at the level of the overall project objective, as well as  the donor’s disbursement of funds, and the internal decision-making and operational structure of the TPTC/TPDF as main stakeholders. There has been progress achieved in several of the capacity-development areas (four out of six), but not sufficiently to attain the project objective of “expanded accessibility”. The infrastructure and equipment donated is, however, identified as contributing to the enhancement of training and learning, enabled by the use of technology.

UNITAR’s high focus on developing and implementing a comprehensive institutional capacity strengthening framework, has greatly contributed to improvement of TPTC’s capacity to re-formulate its strategic vision and action plan, with steps forward a “shift in mindset” regarding their core value proposal, the need to improve quality of training and instruction, and the relevance given to gender-parity issues within training of peacekeepers and overall female leadership development. In sum, there was evidence of progress in four of the six dimensions of capacity established in the framework. Nonetheless, more work is still needed on training of persons in charge of maintenance and use of the IT infrastructure in place, functionality of the e-library, partnerships development, donor diversification, curricula update and the development of TPTC’s value offer as a “centre of excellence” and  comprehensive strategic business plan.

Efficiency:  The evaluation found that the budget granted for the 2021 phase was implemented efficiently and that implementing arrangements made, contributed to the timely delivery. Equipment purchased was also observed as of quality and functional. There was lack of information, however, on the outputs delivered from the partnership with RECSA for the “review of the operating framework of TPTC in support of the establishment of the “research hub”. Efficiency of the 2022 phase was also found to be satisfactory with partnership arrangements contributing to the delivery of the infrastructure to satisfaction of TPTC. The equipment donated to support training activities was partially purchased but with a plan for procurement at the time the evaluation concluded. All activities supporting TPTC’s action plan were implemented timely and with quality, in spite of some variations to the original plan. There was less evidence of the efficiency of activities connected to the TPF, although the budget was also fully implemented and reported with activities completed. Regarding the allocation of funds to the Mwalimu Nyerere Foundation, the evaluation did not find evidence of how this was connected or the forms in which contributed to the project’s objectives or those of the TPTC.

Likelihood of impact: The project is likely to cause impact in the following domains, based on ground assumptions: i) improved learning outcomes and performance of pre-deployed personnel, if there is a continued, structured, and cycled plan to strengthen capacity of TPTC instructors with certified ToT training; ii) Strengthening of female leadership in PKO, if there is there is continued dedicated female leadership training that expands to male personnel and leadership across operational areas, and from the explicit inclusion of a gender-sensitive component in the strategic plan for TPTC, which if materialized into the action plan, could lead to significant structural changes in the way female leadership and participation in PKO is realized within TPTC and the military; and iii) the potential impact from the institutional strengthening capacity process conducted for the TPTC by UNITAR, if the 2023-2028 strategic framework is fully implemented as currently planned.

Likelihood of sustainability: Overall, the TPTC remains highly reliant on external funding and technical donor support, which hinders the possibility for eventual self-sustained action in areas like pre-deployment training implementation, adoption and self-supported implementation of ToTs, and even maintenance of new facilities and donated equipment. Some of the major factors influencing self-sustainability of the centre and thus the project’s activities have to do with the highly centralized TPTC operating and the need for increased capacity in the understanding and navigation of the donor ecosystem, standards and regulations, as well as the need for a longer-term business plan that helps diversifies their sources of income.


The evaluation issued a set of five recommendations to inform future phases of the project.

  1. Recommendation 1. Consolidate a ToT offer for TPTC and TPF that is cycled and scheduled, covering all UNITAR’s ToT levels (1-3), and agree with the participants and leadership on measures and tools to assess the use and impact of training on learning markers of pre-deployed personnel and performance of deployed personnel. Furthermore, work on establishing arrangements with implementing partners to access gender-disaggregated data of results of pre-deployment trainings and peacekeeping missions.
  2.  Recommendation 2. Strengthen information management systems and monitoring and reporting practices. The evaluator highly recommends that in conjunction with the findings and recommendations from the institutional assessment, UNITAR places greater emphasis on the ways in which results are assessed, strengthening TPTC’s accountability as an implementing partner in terms of financial and results management and reporting.
  3. Recommendation 3. Continue to apply and refine the Institutional Assessment Framework package and work towards developing a descriptive narrative of the 156 criteria established for all six areas of measurement. This also entails working on ways to monitor and evaluate progress achieved, in line with recommendations from the assessment, action plans, and partner’s strategic organizational vision.
  4. Recommendation 4. Conduct a localized, context-sensitive, gender analysis in agreement and collaboration with the MODANS and Tanzania People’s Defense Forces (TPDF) and use it to develop a gender-transformative pedagogy to address barriers to effective and meaningful participation of women in peacekeeping operations (PKO) and missions. Bring male and female uniformed personnel (UP) to the process from across roles and institutional areas.
  5. Recommendation 5. Avoid segmented, non-traceable and disconnected action across stakeholders by strengthening accountability and reporting mechanisms in place, joint monitoring and ensuring from design that interlinked action and coherence with project’s overall objective are clearly identified across and between IPs.

Lessons learned

The evaluation identified four lessons learned.

Lesson 1. Institutional capacity development is a sustained, time-bound, and co-responsible effort that requires a human-centered and adaptive management approach from UNITAR, implementing partners, and donors. It also requires a strong relationship built to agree on key areas of capacity development and joint progress monitoring mechanisms.

Lesson 2. To increase the effectiveness and likelihood of impact of UNITAR’s interventions in peacekeeping (and in general), there must be a coherent and interlinked design at the onset, that while keeping the adaptability and navigation of complexity as premises, clearly connects across impact goal, outcomes, results, and activities as a unified compass of action. A ToC is also necessary to guide the common rationale of interwoven conditions understood as drivers of change.

Lesson 3. The pedagogy of a gender-sensitive and gender transformational vision for the inclusion and equal access of women in UN missions and PKO within the military, stays at the surface unless a whole-institution approach is applied to all gender-equality areas of institutional capacity.

Lesson 4. Building infrastructure can be a substantial preparation for capacity development activity that impacts the access and quality of pre-deployment training and other peacekeeping training-related activities. However, to reach such effectiveness, there needs to be institutional arrangements in place that ensure clear roles of the parties involved, a high level of accountability, and a thorough assessment of need, potential use, and sustainability of the infrastructure as capacity development assets.

Share with